Brick kilns, as well as other plants such as ceramics manufacturers and fertiliser producers, are a major producer of hydrogen fluoride (HF) emissions. HF is highly reactive gas and seriously damaging to human health, so has strict emissions limits imposed by legislation. In addition to the effects to humans, emissions have been found to damage crops and fruit trees, as well as the general environment. The brick industry strives to reduce the amount of HF emissions and numerous projects have been carried out into the research and development of proposed process modifications that introduce ways to reduce hydrogen fluoride emissions via the latest technology such as filters and scrubbers.
The standard method for HF measurements in emissions is a manual technique of isokinetic sampling and impingement, followed by analysis by ion selective electrode. However, this methodology does not provide the continuous, process specific measurement that comes from an FTIR analyser for HF. Spot measurements of HF may be all that is required for compliance with emissions legislation, but plant operators looking to reduce their HF emissions are interested in the time-resolved emissions to track peaks in emissions and tailor the emission abatement techniques to best suit to emission at all periods.
Protea’s FTIR gas analysers have been specifically developed for the measurement of reactive gases such as HF from industrial emissions. FTIR is ideally suited to measurement of not just HF, but the whole range of gaseous emissions from brickworks such as CO2, CO, SO2, NOx and also speciated VOCs. FTIR proves a very cost-effective measurement solution.
Protea’s FTIR systems offer a high resolution measurement, meaning that the spectrum of HF that is measured is clearly identifiable and of increased absorption, enabling lower detection limits (LDLs) for HF to be achieved.
Not only does Protea provide a leading analytical instrument for HF, but our experience and knowledge in sampling is important when measuring reactive gases like HF and HCl. Correct choice of sample probe, filter and heated sample line materials, as well as operating temperature and conditioning of the sampling system all have to be taken into account to complete the measurement system.
HF FTIR absorption spectra at 1cm-1 and 4cm-1 resolution. The benefit of 1cm-1 is a clear peak of higher absorption.
HF together with HCl trended from brick works kiln, with emission profile showing variation as each load is fired in the kiln.